Amid the growing support in several regions for enshrining sharia as official law, some important questions remain unanswered.

Islam introduces principles of collective morality such as equality, fairness, brotherhood, mercy, and solidarity. But it also imposes responsibility on individuals for their individual obligations and privileges.

Scholarship generally examines the Islamic laws that dictate individual obligations (fard ayn). However, the Sharia also includes rules on collective duties (fard kifaya). This is an understudied space with fascinating insights into Islamic legal discourse.


Obligations are the morally and legally binding commitments that a person has. For example, if you tell someone that you will call them on Mother’s Day, you have an obligation to do so. Similarly, if you see an elderly man trying to board a full bus and you have the seat to spare, you have an obligation to give it to him. Upholding these obligations is considered a requirement for Muslims. However, as in all religions, circumstances vary and some people keep their obligations more consistently than others. Obligations include things like pay zakat at islamic help, an obligatory donation of surplus wealth to help the poor and needy in society. Other obligations include seeking knowledge, which is also considered a necessary commitment for all Muslims. Obligations can be written or unwritten, and they can be enforceable through a legal system.


Islamic law (sharia) provides guidance for personal and business choices. Its core principles include the prohibition of riba, or interest; the principle of participation, which mandates that investment return must be earned in tandem with actual productive activity; and the principle of ownership, which ensures property rights are respected and that contracts are binding.

Muslims are required to give charity, known as zakat, of two and a half percent of their wealth to the needy. They are also encouraged to give additional voluntary charity throughout the year.

Most Muslims agree that drinking alcohol, engaging in sex outside marriage, and committing suicide are immoral. However, there is less agreement on other moral issues, such as the acceptability of divorce and polygamy.

Some countries that have a Muslim majority allow independent religious tribunals to apply and adjudicate sharia in family-law cases and other matters related to personal faith. These courts may also adjudicate matters involving members of other religions. This allows sharia to coexist alongside secular legal systems in Muslim-majority nations and helps provide protections for minority religious rights.


In Muslim society, there is a sense of responsibility for one’s actions. In general, most Muslims believe that certain behaviors – drinking alcohol, having sex outside of marriage, and committing suicide – are morally wrong. In addition, most Muslims are in agreement that it is necessary to believe in God in order to be a moral person.

For example, Islam requires that all Muslims give charity (zakat) based on two and a half percent of their wealth and income every year. In addition, Muslims are encouraged to give zakat and other voluntary charity as often as they can.

Islamic teachings also require a strong sense of responsibility for one’s health. For example, a physician should encourage his/her patients to avoid risky lifestyle choices and behaviors that encroach on their health. In the case of medical decisions, Muslim patients are usually required to consult their family members before deciding what treatment options to pursue.

While the globalization of Islam and rising levels of education are changing attitudes toward Western notions of autonomy, privacy and personal liberty, it is important for policymakers to recognize that there are still cultural differences in how Muslims perceive and approach medical issues. For example, Muslim culture places a high value on social coherence and on the importance of listening to the opinions of family members when making health care decisions. Consequently, patient autonomy in the context of Islam is limited. This is in contrast to the Western notion of autonomy, which places a premium on individual choice and freedom of expression.


Accountability is a principle that involves giving an account of one’s actions to someone who has the authority to punish or reward them. It is a key part of Islamic morality. It is also a requirement for those who wish to be considered pious and to receive the reward of paradise. This principle requires a commitment to Allah, and it is based on the belief that God knows the secrets of the heart.

In the context of Islamic banking, accountability includes a number of aspects, such as ensuring that the products and services offered comply with Shariah laws. In addition, it requires a strong governance structure and policies to ensure that these laws are adhered to at all times. For example, a financial institution cannot represent itself as “Islamic” or “shariah compliant,” in any way, if it does not have these structures in place.

Unlike many other languages, English has developed the notion of accountability very recently. As a result, it is not clear whether the concept of accountability has precise equivalents in other languages. However, it is possible to observe that the meanings of accountability and responsibility are closely linked.

The definition of accountability varies from culture to culture, but is generally centered on the idea that individuals must be held responsible for their actions and must give an account of these actions. In Islam, this is often achieved through a system of charity known as zakat. Muslims must give a minimum of two and a half percent of their income and wealth to the poor. The Muslim community also believes that it is important to give back to the society in which they live, and they believe that they are a part of the larger Islamic family.

As a consequence, it is essential that an organization has an effective and transparent governance structure and a clear system of risk management in order to be accountable. A financial institution that does not meet these standards risks being subject to criticism and losing credibility. In addition, a weak risk-management system can lead to financial and reputational losses.